The requirements of peace and the role of media culture in communicating and promoting tolerance


 
ABSTRACT
 
 
In this paper we conduct an in-depth study on tolerance and the culture of communication with others. We will also discuss the role of media in promoting  tolerance in societies while highlighting the conditions for the success of tolerance in order to reflect it on the ground   We also highlight the political , moral and social tolerance that today is the problem of societies, especially among races, religions and sects, so we must give solutions that will extinguish the conflict and serve the requirements of peace .The study confirms that the media itself does not create or change the image, but there are other institutions working in this direction and seek to achieve, and that in general societies are working to provide the necessary materials and information from  which the formation  of the stereotype  of society and confirm its identity and the role of citizens in its interaction With the events and issues that are related to the interest of the homeland, and accept the other regardless of the different, in application of the principle  of tolerance at all levels of religious, political, social and cultural locally.
 
KEY WORDS
 
Tolerance, the role of media, promoting tolerance, the requirements of peace.
 
 
I. INTRODUCTION
 
Over the past 20 years, the world has undergone many transformations and variables at the political, social and economic levels In other areas such as ICT, this period was marked by many acts of violence and conflict wars, disasters and crises, and left behind a lot of destruction massacres and mass graves as a result of growing violence and insecurity tolerance and growing hatred and hatred among individuals and peoples both, discrimination based on religion, race and even color among the sons of one homeland, and in the past the name of fanatics was called the priests of the ancient gods who were accustomed to harass them the delirium is particularly special when they stab their bodies until blood flow from them. (Kayali, 1985: 768) [l] Islamic history Muslims witnessed similar episodes of violence the limit of terrorism was the most prominent position of the camel and two descriptions and Karbala, and then what happened to the Abbasids by the Umayyads, and then the reaction of the Abbasids against them, and then the emergence of Kharijites, which is considered the first political group. Humanity has suffered greatly from the effects of violence and intolerance this was in many wars and conflicts, in the twentieth century - for example - there were two world wars and 20 wars between states, (50) other civil war, and (6) bloody massacres, which was harvested (More than 100 million people killed in interstate wars), and  150 (2 million victims of massacres and civil strife), and 500 One million refugees and displaced persons, and (100) thousand tons of materials bacterial and chemical have been developed and used for extermination facilities and individuals and peoples without discrimination (Marzouki, 2005: 2) [2] transnational terror cells and networks that have grown in different states of the world, have caused the death of thousands of victims and millions the injured, expressed by the former Secretary-General Kofi Annan the twentieth century will be remembered as the century which is marked by violence and intolerance, it holds a huge legacy of destruction and disaster, and was able to employ industry technology weapons and modern ICT in service the ideologies of violence, hatred, discrimination and intolerance are far from : Tolerance between people or between different cultures (Al-Gharabawi, 2006) [3].
 
This means that intolerance, the antithesis of tolerance, is a special  case from adhering to the intellectual or adhering to the dogmatic, where he embodies directions individual or group towards other groups or sects, which leads to divide them into a special framework based solely on their affiliation to that group or sect, in other words intolerance means a state from organizing and interpreting information about a particular community or group, is done to take a state of intolerance towards it (Ismail, 1996: 30) [4] evolution of the concept of tolerance from the individual to society and from it to the state ,then to the international group, where the concept is no longer conventionally or linguistically linked to generosity, generosity, goodness, forgiveness, forgiveness and forgiveness tolerance and other universal human values, but arrived at recognition of the right and respect for privacy, as it relates to urbanization sustainable development and the well-being of peoples, but part of a problem the present and the future also lie in the passive accumulator, inherited to tolerate one another, which attempts are made to pursue it with a goal maintaining the stability of societies and some prevailing regimes arab, those that do not accept diversity, differences, dialogue and tolerance pluralism and democracy and believes in violence in the process of change social and political reform. human societies are also very diverse and autism at the same time, this variation is reflected in the number the great races, races, religions and nationalities that bear values and beliefs that lead to different cultures and cultures, while autism is manifested in the fact that all members of these groups participate in as they seek to live in dignity and peace, and strive to achieve 291: their ambitions and the interests of their countries (Ghannouchi, 1993) [5] although the call for tolerance is broadened by theorizing intellectual and pluralistic initiatives at the international level since the end of the war world War II in 1945 to establish the principles of tolerance in relations international and peaceful coexistence  within each State and society intolerance, such as intolerance, discrimination, exclusion and hegemony violence continues to spread and worsen throughout the world leads to increased violent confrontations between parties to the conflict, which do not in which societies in general only reap tragedy and destruction. If they are developing countries are the most vulnerable to violent conflict and conflict bloody due to political and sectarian differences, absence or falsity mechanisms of democracy, the industrialized and developed countries that enjoy democratic regimes have long been free from discrimination racial discrimination in the face of religious and ethnic minorities, and practices extremists against foreigners, especially job seekers, and about life which prevents the achievement  of positive communication between peoples and generates a lot of hatred, and explodes violence in all its forms and forms within Communities (UNESCO, 2005) [6]   .
 
Many educators and sociologists agree on the importance of education in social change, but they differ in the priority of this role or as secondary to other factors of change. Education can not take place in society and therefore lives in society because it is the tool of society in forming A response that can not grow in isolation is a social process that varies from one community to another according to the nature of society and the forces that influence it, as well as the values on which it lives. The educational academics present three models of the relationship between the two parties. The first model focuses on the fact that the educational institutions are a component of other social systems, and that the role of educational institutions is to consolidate existing values, concepts and behaviors, and to educate young people on the culture of society. Making the change and that the society and its other institutions followed the educational institution that can lead, the third direction is the spirit of the first and the second and believes that the relationship is reciprocal and that the impact is transmitted from educational institutions and they receive at the same time.
 
 
 
II. MECHANISMS TO DEVELOP A CULTURE OF TOLERANCE AND COMMUNICATION WITH OTHERS:
 
There are many mechanisms and tools to develop tolerance values with the other is the promotion of social values as an important element in building national identity, and interest in the field of acquisition of positive values and the relationship between prevailing values and the economic and social level in terms of interdependence between personality and economic structure, and the need for profound changes in the human conscience and values of freedom opinion and expression, develop the values of tolerance among young people, and focus on the role of media institutions and educational institutions in evaluation continuing its efforts to instill a culture of tolerance and humanization of legislation education curricula, the administration of justice and equality, the renunciation of violence, and the establishment of justice parties, civil society organizations and cultural elites are published the culture of human rights, the promotion of pluralism and the strengthening of associations civil society, openness to cosmic cultural values, and approximation these meanings of mind, spreading the culture of love and promote communication dialogue between groups and political, religious and intellectual currents within the community and at the regional and international levels .
 
 
III. MEDIA FUNCTIONS IN PROMOTING TOLERANCE FOR THE OTHER:
 
The means of communication have contributed since human existence can promote the values of cultural diversity as a fundamental issue to strengthen society and consolidate its social structure, and promote the values of cooperation between the sons of humanity regardless of the different races and cultures and religions, and expanded these means in all its forms to remain this brotherhood exists between man and his fellow human and the dissolution of differences, and since about fifty years ago, international organizations began experimenting serious to support the models of liberal multiculturalism and in drafting international standards for minority rights, and a project on the internationalization of pluralism as well as by States, communities and specialized international organizations such as UNESCO, to develop programs to support and promote cultural diversity a catalyst for development through dialogue and joint action; and consideration of diversity one of the most catalysts for sustainable development is cultural diversity with media efforts to create  sustainable development that ensures peoples have a secure and stable life. the mechanisms of preservation of identity have come through the ability to deal positively with intellectual, cultural and ethnic pluralism political and economic, since the formation of the individual in the light of these pluralism can develop a spirit of tolerance and rejection of intolerance, respect others and accept differences, and push young people towards communication and establish a common dialogue with the other without hesitation, this can be achieved communicate in a press through the following procedures (Dagger, 2009) [7]
 
 
1. Emphasize the concept and values of citizenship in promoting understanding cooperation among different groups, nations and peoples.
 
2. Emphasis on cultural diversity and pluralism in curriculum content and education activities in schools and universities locally and internationally.
 
3. Providing young people with authentic information, experiences and experiences about countries with their diverse cultures and the preservation of national identity.
 
4. Use the Internet to support dialogue and exchange values information between intellectuals of other countries and intellectuals at home.
 
5. Interested in teaching foreign languages to the Arabic language as the most prominent mechanisms of communication with the other and the definition of pleasure.
 
6. Coordination between the media and social institutions in warning of negative values and intellectual dominance of foreign cultures.
 
7. Develop a spirit of tolerance and reject intolerance and respect for differences with and how to deal with diversity and diversity in the future.
 
8. Develop communication and understanding skills with other cultures while mastering the skills of dealing with advanced technology.
 
9. The media and the media message should go beyond me and ensuring coexistence in the context of diversity.
 
10. Consider tolerance as a human right and moral and intellectual value to treat others as human beings and to respect their humanity.
 
11. Emphasize that tolerance does not eliminate differences, and does not negate difference, but it helps to transmit this difference and that diversity to positive difference, and diversity to a harmonious rather than complementary diversity to turn into a difference of contradiction and conflict.
 
 
IV. POLITICAL, MORAL AND SOCIAL TOLERANCE:
 
Vogt (1997: 17) [8] broadly discerns three types of tolerance. the first is political tolerance. Vogt (1997: 17) [8] hereby means tolerance towards 'acts in the public sphere, such as giving a speech, demonstrating, distributing leaflets, organizing meetings, and so on'. This type of tolerance concerns the support for civil liberties, typically those of disliked or unpopular groups. Political tolerance has been the subject of scientific studies since the 1950s (see Gibson, 2006; Sullivan and Transue, 1999; Sullivan et al., 1982) [9-11] .
Vogt notes (1997: 17) [8] that 'political tolerance is fundamental because it is important for winning and maintaining tolerance of other kinds'. Vogt explains how political tolerance precedes or 'paves the way for' other types of tolerance. Although diverse political orientations were the subject of the earliest systematic study of political tolerance (Stouffer, 1955) [12], political tolerance is not confined to diversity in political orientations. Political tolerance refers to support for civil rights across religious, ethnic, political, cultural and gender differences.
 
The second kind of tolerance Vogt discerns is moral tolerance. This means tolerance towards acts in the private sphere: 'Most typically and controversially in recent decades ... sexual conduct, such as "living in sin", pornography, homosexuality, and abortion' (Vogt, 1997: 17). Vogt (1997) [8] explains that what is at stake, is not the behavior per se, but the question whether certain practices should be subject to public or governmental control. This tension is highly visible in contemporary public debates over euthanasia and gay rights. In the recent history of western Europe, a shift can be discerned with regard to homosexuality, from absolute intolerance (public and private prohibition) to increasing tolerance (sexual conduct is a private matter, and should not be publicly regulated) to full recognition of the equal rights of homosexuals to marry and adopt children in some countries in the last decades. The third kind of tolerance Vogt describes is social tolerance. Social tolerance refers to acceptance of 'ascriptive characteristics people have at birth or acquire in early socialization such as skin color or language' (Vogt, 1997: 17) [8]. Vogt explains it is often not the characteristics in themselves that are disputed, but rather the behavior and acts 'held to be 'inappropriate' of people with such characteristics. An iconic example Vogt uses to illustrate social tolerance is the use of public transport and other public facilities by blacks: prohibited in South Africa until the end of the twentieth century; not tolerated in the USA well into the 1960s. What is considered (in)tolerable varies over time and place and is subject to social, societal and political transformations.
V. PROBLEMS OF DEFINING AND MEASURING (POLITICAL) TOLERANCE:
 
 
Political intolerance is among the most investigated phenomena in modern political science (Gibson, 2006). In political research what is measured usually entails support for the civil liberties of others; or support for the more abstract (democratic) 'rules of the game' that entail tolerance (Mutz, 2001) [13] . The adequate measurement of tolerance however is subject to ongoing debate (e.g. Gibson, 1992, 2005a, 2005b; Gibson and Bingham, 1982; Mondak and Sanders, 2003, 2005) [9,14-16] Scholars disagree about the question of whether measuring tolerance in different ways has consequences for the presumed aetiology of tolerance. Gibson (1992) argues this is not the case, at least not as far as intolerance is concerned.
 
VI. CONDITIONS FOR TOLERANCE SUCCESS
 
The success of tolerance depends on the commitment of the parties to a range of values and ethics include: Respect for cultural pluralism for all peoples from the reality of human differentiation in terms of color race and culture, and the recognition that human diversity is a source of enrichment to human existence and human culture, to avoid prejudices, the pursuit of knowledge of the other also offers the same, the search for methods rapprochement, renunciation of what s fleeing, accepting the privacy of others, and invoking to rationality in dialogue and alliance, and to give preference to the scientific method on emotional and emotional, self-critical, and careful to look for and highlight positive faces in cultures, and to develop the spirit of criticism to avoid the negatives inherited in the inflated view to self, or contempt for the other, and to formulate the image of the ego and the other in the context of mutual understanding, and promote common desire to defend values which ensures positive creative interaction among peoples different cultures, and strive to be a dialogue leading to the Alliance is distinguished from all forms of intolerance and the adoption of integrity intellectual, non-self-esteem at the expense of the other, and rejection of selectivity in the application of international rules and covenants, and not to employ the coalition for immediate purposes and for regional or international policies international phase or purposeful domination and desire to dominate, as well as a reconsideration of the prevailing concepts of progress and underdevelopment,  and the categorical refusal to associate them with a particular religion or culture, and to transcend stereotypes, and adopting a documented scientific and systematic reading of the situation political and social aspects of the ego and the other without linking them to the inheritance
Religious (Radwan, 2004:147) [17].
 
 
 
 
VII. THE IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE OF TOLERANCE IN SOCIETIES
 
Tolerance is a sign of renunciation of violence and aggression, a condition important to peace and social progress through which it can be overcome values of intolerance, discrimination and hatred, as opposed to positive values can be achieved with tolerance such as:) Mutual respect between religions sects and sects - stability of society - consolidation of the values of coexistence and dialogue - overcoming intolerant attitudes - social harmony - The openness of cultures and the achievement of mutual gains - respect human freedoms and rights, ... and that the achievement of this depends on the concerted efforts of state and civil state institutions   is reflected positively on all members of society security and stability.
 
A - the local level, the establishment of a pluralistic society that recognizes freedoms and guarantees the right of all to participate in political, economic, social and cultural life requires mainly anchor the values of tolerance in the relations between the components society, and create an atmosphere conducive to the principle of reconciliation, or what it is expressed by community consensus, and if democracy is the system is based on the fair management of diversity within society through representative institutions that agree on the rules of dealing, tolerance is a key element in achieving the goal this is envisaged, which is to reach minimum limits to ensure all sides agree, which is impossible to achieve in the case of adherence (13), each side has a rigid stance toward the other.
 
B- at the international level, the relations between States are not equivalence, the interests of international blocs, and the tendency to dominate the use of force, reflected negatively on third world countries, especially those that are still moving towards growth and stability making them vulnerable to domination and exploitation by the superpowers because of its political and military influence in international forums, their practices often contradict the  values of tolerance, and the  human rights principles of the international community and specialized bodies, and hold many seminars and its recommendations are included in international charters imprisoned in the theoretical framework, or used as a weapon by States Great, and international institutions subject to their dominance in the face some political regimes with a view to isolating them from the international community.
Tolerance and violation of human values may not be limited at the international level in the economic and political spheres but also the cultural sphere, where States practice the major means to extend its cultural dominance through to impose their language on and replace the language of vulnerable peoples the original language in administrative, economic and social fields cultural and national identity that distinguishes it from others.
 
VIII. THE PRINCIPLES OF TOLERANCE WITH OTHERS AT THE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL:
 
Tolerance at the international level may be achieved by ensuring parity among nations, and reduce hegemony by revising the charter of an organization the United Nations, especially with regard to the composition and manner of the Security Council to take its decisions and powers entrusted to it, by applying force logic, away from political, economic and military influence; and that achieving balance and peace among peoples requires a situation appropriate controls to reduce the gap between North and South, building international relations on fair grounds, and targeting HE and that this may be achieved through two axes: the first means information, as a vital tool in education, awareness and education, especially in societies with increasing illiteracy rates, and the axis The second is based on the educational, guidance and training work of the parties political and civil society organizations, and to set an example the good in the conduct of the conduct of tolerance and self-denial, and non-intolerance, and open the space for dialogue and participation,  and acceptance of criticism, good management of diversity and difference between members of society, and achievement understanding, coexistence and cooperation between nations and peoples, and protection human dignity and respect for their fundamental rights and freedoms.
 
 
IX. THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY THEORY:
 
Social responsibility theory is one of the normative theories classified by mcCoyle to interpret media practices within the structure of any society, where this theory emphasizes that the right to freedom entails certain obligations towards society, which is the so-called positive freedom or freedom of social purpose, In Vivian's view, the theory of responsibility (Mcquail, 2005) social media assesses the media performance of these media through the beneficial effects of media in the social environment. (Vivian, 2006) in theory, freedom is a right, a duty and a responsibility the same time, here the media must accept to do with certain commitments to society, and can make these commitments through professional levels of information such as honesty, objectivity, balance, accuracy, the media must within the framework of their acceptance these obligations should be self-regulated within the framework of the law and existing institutions, and these instruments must be pluralistic reflect the diversity of opinions and ideas in society by providing opportunity for all through unconditional publishing and presentation.)veil, 23 Baran argues that the theory of social responsibility: 2010 to the media that these means must remain free far from government control, but in return must those means can play their part in serving the community, though of the consensus on the impact of media negatively or positively, in individuals society, but some media researchers have confirmed that this effect not at the same level in all members of society, and that the level of impact or degree depends not only on the size of the coverage or focus on some issues, or the size of exposure, but also depend the degree of dependence on the media and its motivations, where it seeks the theory of social responsibility for the protection of freedom of expression her vision is for the media to express all spectrums and categories in society, in addition to securing the responsibility of these means around the quality of its content and its role in sustainable development . 34: The security and integrity of mankind (Rashwan, 1998).
 
 
 
X. CAUSES OF CONFLICT AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PEACE
 
In the last decade many conflicts have erupted all over Africa. Countries which have known different types of conflicts include: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cote D'Ivoire, Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Uganda, Sudan, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo DR, Congo, Angola, Senegal, Guinea Bissau. A significant number of countries are in post conflict and rehabilitation phase and are implementing several Peace-building actions. Almost fifty percent of countries in the region have had some type of violent conflict in the last decade. These include full-scale armed conflicts, military occupation, and popular rebellion. Most of the conflicts can be described as "political violence" and come in different categories: Those arising from imposed societal inequities in resources and power (i.e. structural political violence arising from poor economic and political governance) ; militarization and war (combative political violence) ; political assassinations, torture, disappearances, detention and harassment (repressive political violence) violence against the state in the form of coup d'etats, guerrilla war fare and revolutionary forces (reactive political violence) (Zwi & Ugalde, 1989; 1991). By far the most common type of violent conflicts in the world today is low intensity conflict which is deep-seated racial, ethnic, and religious hatreds combined with structural cleavages and political oppression that result in the victimization of one or more groups through the denial of their fundamental needs (Fisher, 2009). Several African conflicts fit very well this global characterization. In the continent, the denial of fundamental needs referred to, include: the inequitable distribution of wealth and widespread poverty and the denial of human rights. The frequency of reactive political violence (in form of coups and guerrilla warfare) also suggest a breakdown in communication and an absence of dialogue among stakeholder and the existence of a culture of war (as opposed to a culture of peace). The existence of any of these negative factors in society is likely to lead to conflict. This is even more so if the victims of these negative factors are drawn mainly from certain ethnic or regional groups.
 
Poverty and inequitable distribution of wealth play a major role in most conflicts. It creates resentment of those who are well-off. It generates a lot of anger and hatred in society. It diminishes the Poor's respect for institutions and property. It dis-empowers the afflicted and reduces their access to justice. It diminishes their self-esteem. And when a group of individuals’ losses all these abilities and all powers to regain them, they become hopeless and eventually resort to violence because it is seen as the only solution available. If the lines separating those who are poor and those with wealth coincide with those of the ethnic or regional divisions, it creates an atmosphere for conflict. Most of the conflict that may be construed to be political are really fight over resources Gobs, tax revenues, infrastructural developments etc). It is not uncommon to hear politicians say "it our group's turn to provide leadership". The intention that really lies behind such statement is access to and control over the national cake/ resource. When there is resistance from another group to this take --over of political power (actually economic resource), conflict ensues. The denial of human rights is one of the root causes of conflict in most societies. In many countries in Africa were conflicts have occurred one can identify many historical injustices that denied some of the citizens their basic rights. The absence of the rule of law arising from a weak judicial system that is not truly independent of the Government is one of the factors that create an atmosphere conducive to violent conflicts. In a situation like that citizens will not be able to expect justice from legal actions against the state when their rights are violated and security forces can engage freely in the abuse of human rights. The lack of respect for the fundamental rights such as the right to vote, freedom of speech and assembly also promote conflict. Several countries emerging form conflict have had prohibitions against meetings/ gatherings of people in excess of a particular size, have failed to conduct free and fair elections and suppressed any political opposition to the Government. Other violations of human rights include torture and illegal detention.
 
The break down in communication makes it difficult for the conflicting parties to understand each other's traditions, cultures and intentions. Very often conflicts arise as a result of misunderstanding that would not exist if there is communication. The existence of good means of communication and dialogue ensures that disputes are settled before they transform into violent conflicts. Dialogue between people of various ethnicity or opposing groups can lead to deepened understanding and help to change the demonic image of the opposing groups. In Africa, most of the inter-ethnic conflicts have arisen out of negative stereo typical views of the opposing groups which sometimes create fear and mistrust. It is an established fact that throughout history ignorance (and in some cases contempt) of other cultures have led to conflicts. Several countries have a culture that promotes war (a Culture of war). To understand what a culture war is, it will be useful to make comparison with a culture of peace.
 
ï A culture of war is characterized by secrecy and propaganda. A culture of peace on the other hand assures a free flow of information through freedom of the press and freedom of expression. In Africa there are several countries where freedom of the press is not guaranteed. In these countries it is very risky to be a journalist. Such countries are practicing acts that will promote a culture of war. ï A culture of war encourages the exploitation of people while a culture of peace allows all to enjoy their human rights. One can identify several countries in Africa where there is exploitation of groups of people (women, ethnic or racial minorities) ï The difference between the two cultures also lies in the way nature and the environment is treated. A culture of war selfishly exploits the nature while a culture of peace promotes sustainable development. ï Another difference is that the culture of war is characterized by use of power arising from the monopoly over force while the culture of peace is characterized by dialogue based on logic rooted in education. Dictatorships tend to rely on force to keep the citizens in check. Such countries are in effect in a culture of war.
 
 ï Finally a significant difference between the culture of war and peace is found in the way the former perpetuates male dominance while the latter promotes equality of women and men. Following from the above discussion of the causes of conflict one can identify the following requirements of peace: socio-economic advancement; Intercultural dialogue (communications); a culture of peace and tolerance of the enjoyment of human rights and justice by all. Socio-economic advancement is absolutely necessary in order to reduce poverty and minimize the competition for scarce resources. However, it must be emphasized that economic growth, though an important requirement is not sufficient to overcome widespread poverty in society. In Africa for the poor to advance they need a poverty reduction strategy that includes: Investment in agriculture; creating employment; building infrastructure, support for the private sector and social protection. It is obvious that all these action, except the last one, require scientific and technical inputs.
 
REFERENCES
 
[I] Kiyali,  Abdel  Wahab  (1985)  Political  encyclopedia  (Beirut:  Part  1, Dar  Al-Huda  Publishing  and Printing ).
 
[2]  Marzouki,  Mouans  (2012)  Islamophobia,  on  the  following  link:  http:  //  moncefmarzouki.   php? article I 72 .
 
[3] Al-Gharabawi, Majid (2006) Tolerance and the origins of intolerance (Baghdad Center for the Study of the Philosophy of Religion ) .
 
[4]    Ismail, Ezzat (1996) The Psychology of Extremism and Terrorism (Annals)    Faculty of Arts, Kuwait University, Yearbook .
 
[5] Ghannouchi, Rashid (1993) Public freedoms in the Islamic state Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies.
 
[6] UNESCO,  Organization  (1996)  Declaration  of Principles  on Tolerance  (Paris:  UNESCO  Message, March, Arabic Version) .
 
[7] Dagher, Magdy (2009) The East-West Civilizational Conflict      Cairo: Modern Library in Mansoura .
 
[8] Vogt WP (1997) Tolerance and Education: Learning to Live with Diversity and Difference. Thousand Oaks, CA, London and New Delhi: Sage
 
[9] Gibson J (2006) Enigmas of intolerance: Fifty years after Stouffer's communism, conformity, and civil liberties. Perspectives on Politics 4(1): 21-34. The most complete reviews of empirical tolerance research till date.
 
[10]    Sullivan  JL,  Piereson  J  and  Marcus  GE  (1982)  Political  tolerance  and  American  Democracy. Chicago:
University  of Chicago  Press. The most  extensive  study  of  American  political  tolerance  since  Stouffer (1955). Moreover, the book offers an insightful overview of perspectives on tolerance in democratic theory.
 
[II] Sullivan JL and Transue JE (1999) The psychological underpinnings of democracy: A selective review of
research on political tolerance, interpersonal trust, and social capital. Annual Review of Psychology 50(1): 625-50.
 
[12]    Stouffer SA (1955) Communism,  Conformity  and  Civil  Liberties:  A Cross-Section  of the Nation Speaks its Mind. Gloucester, MA: Smith.
 
[13]    Mutz  DC  (2001)  Tolerance. International Encyclopedia  of  the  Social  and  Behavioral  Sciences, 15766-15771.
Available at: w..vw.sciencedi rect.com /science/ referenceworks /9780 080430768 .
 
[14]    Gibson JL and Bingham RD (1982) On the conceptualization and measurement of political.
 
[15]    Mondak  JJ  and  Sanders MS  (2003) Tolerance  and  intolerance,  1976-1998. American Journal  of Political  Science 47(3): 492-502.
 
[16]    Mondak  JJ and  Sanders MS  (2003) Tolerance  and  intolerance,  1976-1998. American Journal  of Political  Science 47(3): 492-502.
 
[17]    Radwan, Mr., (2004) Tolerance and Tolerance (Journal of Tolerance, Ministry) Awqaf, Sultanate of Oman, number.
 
 
 
ZAOUI ABDELOUAHAB
The department of Electrical Engineering, Saida University
Electro-Technical Engineering
Laboratory Saida ,2000 Algeria
Email*: abdelouahabzaoui@.vahoo.com
 
 

Photo Gallery

comments powered by Disqus